Breathing Questions

1. Describe the position of the lungs and how they are protected.
The lungs are surrounding the heart. This is in your thorax, at chest-height, a little bit leaning to the left chest. They’re protected by the rib-cage which is surrounding the organs in the thorax. The rib-cage is made of ribs and a backbone.

2. Describe the route the air takes when it goes into your body.
The air goes into your windpipe (trachea), to your left and right bronchus, then into the bronchioles and from the bronchioles into the alveoli.

3. Describe breathing and describe respiration.
Breathing is getting in air, from your trachea to your alveoli, as explained in Question two. Respiration is what happens in the body cells: Turning food and oxygen into energy.

4. Why do cells nood oxygen?
All body cells need oxygen and food to make energy. The energy is needed for almost everything your body does.

5. Air entering the lungs is rich in _ and air leaving the lungs is rich in __ __ and _ _.
Air entering the lungs is rich in oxygen and air leaving the lungs is rich in carbon dioxide and water vapour.

6. What's the difference between breathing and respiration?
Breathing is getting in oxygen and getting rid of waste substances and water vapour. Respiration is the process of turning food and oxygen into energy.

7. what are some differences between the trachea and the gullet?
The trachea has cartilage around it. The gullet is elastic. It can take quite large things through. The windpipe can only let air through, so it’s not as strong as the gullet.

8. Why doesn't food enter your trachea?
It's closed by the epiglottis while your swallowing.

9. Why is there cartilage around the trachea?
There’s cartilage around the trachea to keep it from collapsing when you breath out again.

10. What is the larynx?
The larynx is at the point where the gullet and the wind-pipe are separated. It is involved in protecting the wind-pipe, helping to make sounds and also in the breathing process.

11. Why is it better to breath in through your nose?
The nose-hairs sort out larger pieces of dirt and dust out of the air before entering the lungs. So the lungs have to work less hard.

12. What is the diaphragm and why do you need it?
It separates the thorax from the abdomen and when this sheet of muscle moves down, the air can get into the lungs more easily. It is critical for breathing.

13. Why are alveoli thin walled? ( A ), Why are alveoli moist? ( B ) and Why do alveoli have a rich blood supply? ( C )
A. The alveoli are thin walled to let oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapour through.
B. The alveoli are moist so that gases can dissolve to make the exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapour more easy.
C. The alveoli have a rich blood supply to let more oxygen and more waste substances through.

14. Which artery brings blood rich in Carbon dioxide and water vapour to the lungs?
The pulmonary artery brings blood rich in carbon dioxide and water vapour to the lungs.

15. Which vein leaves the lungs, rich in oxygen?
The pulmonary vein leaves the lungs rich in oxygen.

16. Describe three diseases caused by smoking.
Lung cancer is a disease which is a rough form of cancer in your lungs. It is caused by the substances that are in cigarettes.
Chronic bronchitis is a lung disease which makes it hard to adapt oxygen.
When you have Chronic bronchitis, you cough a lot.
Emphysema, also called lung-rot, is also a lung disease. People with emphysema have a short breath, which gets worse and worse.
Damage to your lungs stays, you cannot heal it. But there is a way to stop the diseases with destroying your lungs, and other body parts. Stop smoking is the only way to make the diseases slow down, or stop.

17. Describe nicotine, and describe carbon dioxide.
Nicotine causes a release of glucose from the liver, causing relaxation, calmness and alertness. It decreases concentration, learning and memory.
Tar is very bad and it gets stuck in the alveoli. It’s black, that’s why lungs of smokers usually look very different than the lungs of non-smokers. It causes breathing problems because the oxygen can’t go into the blood easily.
Carbon dioxide is a waste substance that is also in the air. It’s not bad, if in normal proportions. Then the body can get rid of it. But extra of it is bad for you.

© Eva de Schipper, B2a

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